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A Bone Fracture

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which a bone is cracked or broken. It is a break in the continuity of the bone. While many fractures are the result of high-force impact or stress, bone fractures can also occur because of certain medical conditions that weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis.

A fracture may be complete or partial and is commonly caused by trauma due to a fall, motor vehicle accident or sports injury. Thinning of the bone due to osteoporosis in the elderly can also cause bones to break easily. Overuse injuries are a common cause of stress fractures in athletes.

Types of fractures

Simple fracture: The fractured bone is broken into two pieces.
Comminuted fracture: The fractured bone is broken into multiple smaller pieces.
Unstable fracture- the fragments of the broken bone are misaligned and displaced
Open (compound) fracture: A severe fracture in which the broken bones protrude through the skin. This type of fracture is more prone to infection and requires immediate medical attention.
Greenstick fracture: A fracture unique to children, where one side of the bone is broken while the other side is bent

Fracture Healing

Our body reacts to a fracture by protecting the injured area with a blood clot and callus or fibrous tissue. Bone cells begin forming on either side of the fracture line. These cells grow towards each other and eventually close the fracture site.

Medical Therapy

The objective of early fracture management is to control bleeding, prevent ischemic injury (bone death) and to remove sources of infection such as foreign bodies and dead tissues. The next step is the reduction of the fracture and its maintenance. It is important to ensure that the involved part of the body returns to its function after the fracture heals. To achieve this, fracture reduction and immobilization are achieved by either a non-operative or surgical method.

Non-operative (closed) therapy uses immobilization with splinting or casting.


This is done for any fracture that is displaced, shortened, or angulated. Splints and casts are made of fiberglass or Plaster of Paris (POP) and are used to immobilize the limb.

Surgical Therapy

Open Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF)

This is a surgical procedure in which the fracture site is exposed while a reduction of the fracture is done. Internal fixation is accomplished with wires, plates, screws, and/or rods.

External fixation

This is a procedure in which the fracture stabilization is done outside the body using rods screwed into the bone above and below the fracture that exit the body and are attached to a stabilizer device that may be adjusted.  It helps to maintain bone length and alignment without casting.

External fixation is performed in the following conditions:

  • Open fractures with significant soft-tissue involvement
  • Burns and soft tissue injuries
  • Pelvic fractures
  • Comminuted (shattered) and unstable fractures
  • Fractures having bony deficits
  • Limb-lengthening procedures


Fractures may take several weeks to months to heal completely. You should limit your activities even after the removal of the cast or brace so the bone becomes solid enough to bear stress. Rehabilitation programs involve exercises and a gradual increase in activity levels until the process of healing is complete.

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